• Speech & Language Therapy

    Articulation/Phonology Disorder

    I. What is articulation/ phonology?

    Articulation is the actions of the organs of speech that modify the breath stream resulting in speech sounds.  Phonology is the study of linguistic rules governing the sound system of the language, including speech sounds, speech sound production, and the combination of sounds in meaningful utterances.

    II.  What are the characteristics of an articulation/ phonology disorder?

    Abnormal productions of speech sounds consisting of substitutions of one sound for another, omission of sounds, and/ or sounds distortions.
    Phonological processes are patterned modifications of speech sound productions away from the standard adult productions.  Phonological processes usually simplify syllable structures or phoneme classes.

    III.  Developmental Articulation Age Guidelines:


    Speech Sounds

     Age of 90% Mastery
     Age Male  Female 
    3-0 ~ 3-11 m, n, h, w, p, b, t, d, k  m, n, h, w, p, b, d, k, g 
    4-0 ~ 4-11 g, f  y, t, voiced th, f 
    5-0 ~ 5-11  y, v  v, l 
    6-0 ~ 6-11  unvoiced th, sh, ch, j 
    7-0 ~ 7-11  voiced th, s, z, sh, ch, j  ng, s, z 
    8+ r, unvoiced th, ng r